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Merrill Cook July 24, 2015 - Infographics

A little old--but one of my favorite infographics I've been a part of:
#history #philosophy #infographic #giantFlowChart

  • A little old--but one of my favorite infographics I've been ... via Merrill Cook


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D. M. Chapman July 13, 2015 - Perceptions & Cognitions

Here's a fascinating article on Empathy...

I say that because I believe this is critical to the continued existence of the human race. This is largely because we all are connected, like it or not, on a subatomic level (a matter of nature), even if we tend to enjoin or remove ourselves from different social groups and regard our empathy as a choice - which it is (a matter of nurture).

Sadly, some people are devoid of the ability to feel empathy - not because they cannot feel it but because they choose not to - and, in some cases, this affects whole cultures. The cultural effect, inasmuch as I have witnessed it, seems to be most prevalent in places where the population level is very high and there are too many people around us to focus on (China, India and inner city districts of major cities all over the planet come to mind), so society at large shuts down this powerful and vital emotion.

The same concern has come to mind more recently with respect to racial wars, bias and hate crimes, with law enforcement vs. the citizenry and in cases where minorities and other social groups are active in efforts to modernize the traditional, static beliefs of the past - many of which have already been redefined by a society who has already learned to understand the importance of empathy as well as these changes.

(And I haven't even grazed the surface of the topic, especially with regard to how financial matters affect empathy - that one is shameless and tragic)

Despite all this, we still have a lot of work to do, fellow humans. I encourage everyone who is concerned with being able to find their place in the evolving world to read the following article. It may offer you some very valuable insight...and I hope it helps a few people who have been very stingy with their concern for others to open their hearts a bit. After all, you could very well have been born into a much different situation and that situation could have quite easily been one you don't keep in mind when deciding how to distribute your empathy.


Empathy Is Actually a Choice
JULY 10, 2015
(Credit Grard DuBois)

ONE death is a tragedy. One million is a statistic.

Youve probably heard this saying before. It is thought to capture an unfortunate truth about empathy: While a single crying child or injured puppy tugs at our heartstrings, large numbers of suffering people, as in epidemics, earthquakes and genocides, do not inspire a comparable reaction.

Studies have repeatedly confirmed this. Its a troubling finding because, as recent research has demonstrated, many of us believe that if more lives are at stake, we will and should feel more empathy (i.e., vicariously share others experiences) and do more to help.

Not only does empathy seem to fail when it is needed most, but it also appears to play favorites. Recent studies have shown that our empathy is dampened or constrained when it comes to people of different races, nationalities or creeds. These results suggest that empathy is a limited resource, like a fossil fuel, which we cannot extend indefinitely or to everyone.

What, then, is the relationship between empathy and morality? Traditionally, empathy has been seen as a force for moral good, motivating virtuous deeds. Yet a growing chorus of critics, inspired by findings like those above, depict empathy as a source of moral failure. In the words of the psychologist Paul Bloom, empathy is a parochial, narrow-minded emotion one that will have to yield to reason if humanity is to survive.

We disagree.

While we concede that the exercise of empathy is, in practice, often far too limited in scope, we dispute the idea that this shortcoming is inherent, a permanent flaw in the emotion itself. Inspired by a competing body of recent research, we believe that empathy is a choice that we make whether to extend ourselves to others. The limits to our empathy are merely apparent, and can change, sometimes drastically, depending on what we want to feel.

Two decades ago, the psychologist Daniel Batson and colleagues conducted a study that showed that if people expected their empathy to cost them significant money or time, they would avoid situations that they believed would trigger it. More recently, one of us, Daryl Cameron, along with the psychologist Keith Payne, conducted an experiment to see if similar motivational factors could explain why we seem more empathetic to single victims than to large numbers of them.

Participants in this study read about either one or eight child refugees from the Darfur region of Sudan. Half of the participants were led to expect that they would be asked to make a donation to the refugee or refugees, whereas the other half were not. When there was no financial cost involved in feeling empathy, people felt more empathy for the eight children than for the one child, reversing the usual bias. If insensitivity to mass suffering stemmed from an intrinsic limit to empathy, such financial factors shouldnt have made a difference.

Likewise, in another recent study, the psychologists Karina Schumann, Jamil Zaki and Carol S. Dweck found that when people learned that empathy was a skill that could be improved as opposed to a fixed personality trait they engaged in more effort to experience empathy for racial groups other than their own. Empathy for people unlike us can be expanded, it seems, just by modifying our views about empathy.

Some kinds of people seem generally less likely to feel empathy for others for instance, powerful people. An experiment conducted by one of us, Michael Inzlicht, along with the researchers Jeremy Hogeveen and Sukhvinder Obhi, found that even people temporarily assigned to high-power roles showed brain activity consistent with lower empathy.

But such experimental manipulations surely cannot change a persons underlying empathic capacity; something else must be to blame. And other research suggests that the blame lies with a simple change in motivation: People with a higher sense of power exhibit less empathy because they have less incentive to interact with others.

Even those suffering from so-called empathy deficit disorders like psychopathy and narcissism appear to be capable of empathy when they want to feel it. Research conducted by one of us, William A. Cunningham, along with the psychologist Nathan Arbuckle, found that when dividing money between themselves and others, people with psychopathic tendencies were more charitable when they believed that the others were part of their in-group. Psychopaths and narcissists are able to feel empathy; its just that they dont typically want to.

Arguments against empathy rely on an outdated view of emotion as a capricious beast that needs to yield to sober reason. Yes, there are many situations in which empathy appears to be limited in its scope, but this is not a deficiency in the emotion itself. In our view, empathy is only as limited as we choose it to be.

#Empathy #Philosophy #Psychology

  • Here's a fascinating article on Empathy...

I say that becau... via D. M. Chapman
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    D. M. Chapman July 13, 2015

    “The nitrogen in our DNA, the calcium in our teeth, the iron in our blood, the carbon in our apple pies were made in the interiors of collapsing stars. We are made of starstuff.” - Carl Sagan | 'Cosmos'


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